The past must be invented. The future must be revised. Doing both makes what the present is.
from John Cage: Composition in Retrospect
Stuart's great essay describes how the needs and nature of our classical music institutions, and not our audiences or the music itself, have come to disproportionately and unconsciously influence thinking in the field. He suggests reframing the discussion and posits that the wind band is an ideal medium to do so.
I must confess that the contradiction, composing and not composing, has haunted me for a long time. Do you know the story of my relationship with psychoanalysis? It's short. It must have been around 1945. I was disturbed. Some friends advised me to seek an analyst. All the psychoanalyst was able to tell me was that thanks to him I was going to be able to produce more music, tons of music! I never went back.
From For the Birds
In 2007 Stuart and I recorded a podcast with the outstanding young composer Mason Bates. He talkes, among other things, about how he came to combine classical and electronic idioms, the role of texture in electronica, the similarities between DJs and church organists, and how audiences and musicians responded to his first electroacoustic works.
Stuart, Mason, and Dustin after the State Theater Concert in March, 2007. Photo by Kyle M. Peterson
Stuart and I have been blogging on this site for over 5 years now, and I think we've produced some pretty good stuff. With five years of content, though, it's easy for older posts to get buried in the archives. We recently installed a search function on the front page (right under Recent Posts) to make it a bit easier to sift through older entries, and you can read posts by catagory as well, but even then some of our best work might remain unfamiliar to our newer readers.
With that in mind we've decided that instead of simply going dark for the next few weeks as we take a break to travel, hike, lay about, and prepare for the fall, we will repost some of our favorite entries. Think of it as The Loose Filter Project's greatest hits. Enjoy!
QUESTION: To repeat the question I asked a moment ago: don't you ever feel betrayed by different performances of the same piece?
J.C.: I am going to tell you a story. One day, around 1940, a musician, a pianist, phoned me to say that he was coming from South America, where he had played The Perilous Night, and he wanted me to hear it. He wanted to know what I thought about it, no matter what the cost. So, I went to his studio, and he banged out a Perilous Night that was perfectly horrible! At that moment, I would have preferred never to have written The Perilous Night! In the years that followed, when pianists came to me while my works were not yet published, I advised them especially not to play The Perilous Night. And then, by chance, in the course of a tour in the southern United States - it was at a university, I believe - another pianist said to me: 'I play your Perilous Night, and I would like you to hear it.' I replied that I did not want to. He insisted. I ended up letting myself be convinced, and I followed him to his piano. I listened. It was marvelous.
from For the Birds
Gustavo Dudamel conducted some very cool programs with the LA Phil as part of its recent Brahms Unbound festival. I've always found it difficult to build really compelling programs around Brahms' symphonies because they are so thematically, harmonically, rhythmically, and texturally rich that not many works are both different enough to compliment them and strong enough stand on their own. The Dude does a nice job, though. Here are two concerts that I think worked particularly well.
In a previous post I talked about the filter bubble I've created for myself in terms of my classical music world view, and resolved to search out other voices that would add to a mostly one-sided discussion. It's been tough because there aren't many folks outside the classical music world writing about it, but here are a few interesting perspectives.
Great orchestra sounds incredible, and is an experience not to be missed; no doubt. But am I sad that a member of the orchestra gets paid only $40k for their part time work doing something that they love, which is about what the average full time American makes? Not exactly. Is it right to think that Joe Cellist is a truly fundamental piece of any given local music scene? No. - felix
Until recently most of my regular music reading tended to skew towards the East Coast. Many of my favorite bloggers, journalists, and musicians are based in New York, and it is, of course, the epicenter for innovative new music happenings, so it is completely understandable that happenings in other parts of the country aren't on their radar. With that in mind, I'm sharing some great sources for West Coast arts news.
My favorite is the Los Angeles Times' fantastic arts blog Culture Monster. It covers everything from architecture and graffiti to the LA Phil and the Hollywood Bowl. Recent posts included an interview with David Lang and a profile of Eric Whitacre.
For Bay Area music news there's the San Francisco Classical Voice. It's a great source of concert listings for smaller ensembles and one-off shows as well as profiles and interviews of local musicians. I blogged previously about this interview with Michael Morgan. If you were in town last weekend you could have caught this concert featuring cellist Zoe Keating and the Magik*Magik Orchestra.
I don't see why a professor should have to teach his students what he already knows, or what he knows how to do. This is all the more true for teaching music. Since the professor knows how to do what he knows how to do, since he's already supposed to know the discipline he's teaching, that ought to be enough! There's no reason at all for the students to follow the same path. They shouldn't repeat, they should invent something else.
From For the Birds
The Artful Manager had an interesting post in which he shared some points of view that questioned the assumption that stealing (or giving your stuff away for free) is bad for business (previously). He linked to a couple of studies that suggest that sales of knock-off designer handbags can lead to sales of the actual item. For some people, it turns out, possession of the fake or pirated item can actually lead to a desire for the real deal. For example, author Neil Gaiman discovered that access to pirated copies of his work seemed to boost sales, and convinced his publisher to conduct an experiment testing the idea.
What I appreciate about Varèse is obviously his freedom in choosing timbre. He, along with Henry Cowell, has very greatly contributed to getting us used to the idea of a limitless tonal universe. No matter how refined Schoenberg's timbres may be, they hardly ever get away from the number twelve . . . While with Varèse, whatever his 'organizational' notions may have been, you feel that everything is possible.
Nevertheless, there is still in Varèse a prejudice towards controlling sounds or noises. He tries to bend sounds to his will, to his imagination. And that is what very quickly bothered us. We knew that he wouldn't let sounds be entirely free. What we were looking for was in a way more humble: sounds, quite simply. Sounds, pure and simple.
Another U.S. orchestra has shut down, meaning we've lost FOUR this season: Honolulu, New Mexico, Syracuse, and now Bellevue (WA). As well, Louisville and Philadelphia have filed for bankruptcy protection. Lebrecht gives the story here.
As regular readers of this site know, our position is that the basic problem remains relatively uncomplicated to understand: the potential American listeners that orchestras need to reach simply are not interested in what they are offering. It could be different specific things: programming, modes of presentation, ticket prices, competition, etc., but it seems that many American orchestras somehow think that if they can just preserve what audience they have through the recession or whatever, things will spring back to normal eventually. This does not acknowledge that the larger culture has changed and is changing in fundamental ways to which artists must adapt if their work is to resonate with listeners.
Matthew Guerrieri recaps the Rethink Music conference at the Berklee College of Music (via NewMusicBox). The conference aimed to bring together "all sides and viewpoints on the subjects of creativity, commerce, and policy to engage in critical dialogue examining the business and rights challenges facing the music industry." But, as Guerrieri writes, the viewpoints of emerging artists and established players on those subjects couldn't be more divergent.
[T]here was, for example, Del Bryant, the president and CEO of BMI, opining on Tuesday morning that "giving things away for free" was "not building the business," while the Canadian band Metric and their voluble manager, Matt Drouin, related on Tuesday afternoon how they built their business by giving things away for free. There was Cary Sherman, president of the RIAA, insisting that lawsuits against file-sharing end users had "clearly [indicated] to the public at large what was legal and what was not," a day after the singer/songwriter Bleu had matter-of-factly said, "I don't think there's any way to go back to monetizing music."
Eli Pariser's great TED Talk about the dangers of internet "filter bubbles" got me thinking about what other types of filters shape my worldview. I realized that in addition to the algorithmic ones that Pariser is concerned about, there are also filters I've unintentionally created myself.
When I looked at the RSS feeds I subscribe to I realized that almost every blog or webpage belongs to someone squarely in the classical music world, someone who is either part of a large, traditional institution, or dependent on one. I thought about some of these folks and wondered what they filter out. For instance, if you only read Greg Sandow you'd think that nearly all orchestras are going out of business. If you only read Alex Ross, on the other hand, you'd think that classical music concerts are the coolest, hippest things in the world. If you only read Proper Discord you would probably think that all arts administrators are idiots.
But enough of the contemporary musical scene; it is well known. More important is to determine what are the problems confronting the contemporary mushroom. To begin with, I propose that it should be determined which sounds further the growth of which mushrooms; whether these latter, indeed, make sounds of their own; whether the gills of certain mushrooms are employed by appropriately small-winged insects for the production of pizzicati and the tubes of the Boleti by minute burrowing ones as wind instruments; whether the spores, which in size and shape are extraordinarily various, and in number countless, do not on dropping to the earth produce gamelan-like sonorities; and finally, whether all this enterprising activity which I suspect delicately exists, could not, through technological means, be brought, amplified and magnified, into our theaters with the net result of making our entertainments more interesting.
from Music Lovers' Field Companion, 1954
Last weekend the Wordless Music Orchestra gave the US premiere of Jonny Greenwood's Doghouse for orchestra and string trio. Also on the program was Philip Glass' Symphony No. 4 "Heroes" and Gyorgi Ligeti's Chamber Concerto for 13 Instruments. I'd pay money to hear that. Here are live recordings from the show.
Philip Glass - Symphony No 4. "Heroes"
Gyorgi Ligeti - Chamber Concerto for 13 Instruments
Jonny Greenwood - Doghouse
In 1994 Congress, following the latest round of GATT talks, voted to remove thousands of works, including musical scores, from the public domain. The rationale was that U.S. copyright laws would now be comparable to those in Europe - at that time many musical scores that were in the public domain in the U.S. were still under copyright in their home country - and this new parity would help protect the rights of U.S. composers, authors, and publishers abroad. If you've ever stumbled across an old set of parts for a Shostakovich or Prokofiev symphony in your school's library and wondered why that piece is rental-only today, this is the reason why.
A case challenging Congress' right to remove works from the public domain is now on its way to the Supreme Court. The plaintiff, conductor Lawrence Golan. The Chronicle of Higher Ed tells the story of Golan's journey from a conductor stymied, as many of us are, by the high costs of copyrighted works, to a reluctant advocate for the protection of the public domain.
The less ego you have, the more influence you have as a conductor. And the result is that you can concentrate on the only things that really matter: the music and the people who are playing it. You are of no account whatever. But if you can help people to feel free to play as well as they can, that's as good as it gets.
Astute observations from conductor Sir Colin Davis. I've always enjoyed his readings of the Sibelius symphonies, No. 7 in particular, and his recording of the epic Elgar Violin Concerto with Hilary Hahn is wonderful as well. You can read more from and about Sir Colin here and here. Photo by Jennifer Taylor.
A new study says yes:
New research shows that musicians' brains are highly developed in a way that makes the musicians alert, interested in learning, disposed to see the whole picture, calm, and playful. The same traits have previously been found among world-class athletes, top-level managers, and individuals who practice transcendental meditation.
[Those with high mind-brain development, such as musicians] have well-coordinated frontal lobes. Our frontal lobes are what we use for higher brain functions, such as planning and logical thinking.... Yet another EEG measure shows that individuals with high mind brain development use their brain resources economically. They are alert and ready for action when it is functional to be so, but they are relaxed and adopt a wait-and-see attitude when that is functional.
Musicians also exhibit higher levels of moral reasoning and have more peak experiences. Fascinating stuff.
NPR had a succinct history of the MP3 a while back. It was an interesting read, and this is what fascinated me the most.
The story of how the [MP3] technology was hijacked and adapted for widespread consumers contains not only the roots of the war that the music industry would later wage over the tiny, compressed, user-friendly files, but also echoes of some of the very ideas that war was fought over: intellectual property, copyright, technology, theft, control and the free distribution of ideas and products that had taken years to realize.
What's notable and disturbing is that Brandenburg and his colleagues were ultimately unable to assert their intellectual property rights once someone copied and distributed their proprietary software used to encode MP3 files. This problem - "the free distribution of ideas and products that had taken years to realize" - made me think of composers and their music, and this post from John Mackey's blog in particular. While John's post deals with unlicensed performances, it still made me wonder what technologies have the potential to impact the classical music world the way the MP3 impacted the recording industry.
Fantastic interview with conductor Michael Morgan in which he talks about what it really takes for an orchestra to become an integral part of its community. Here are some of my favorite quotes. It's a GREAT read and I highly recommend you check it out.
I think that everyone should be shooting for the widest possible range of things that a symphony orchestra can credibly do. And the members of the symphony orchestra can do all those things; you just have to see how far you can expand your audience — you don’t want toleave your audience behind, either.
In case you missed it, here is Proper Discord's contribution to Drew McManus's Take a Friend to the Orchestra project. He shares his experiences attending orchestral concerts with non-musicians, and the results are pretty much what you would expect. If the show was good, his guests enjoyed it; if it wasn't, they didn't.
PD explodes (IMHO) the argument that suggests that audience members have to have technical musical knowledge to enjoy musical structures like sonata form. His guests either liked the show or they didn't, and didn't need a technical explanation to justify their reaction. It's like eating out, PD says:
When you’re sitting in a restaurant and your food shows up cold, you don’t care why it wasn’t cooked properly. You just wanted it warm.
Bernard Holland pithily dissects the two basic sets of problems facing American orchestras, in a very perceptive article from 2003:
The free-enterprise system, which worked so admirably to bring the American city its new wealth, transferred poorly to the performing arts. [...] With good management, it is supposed, money and listeners will come rolling in -- again, a symptom masquerading as a cause. Orchestras are not sick because they have bad management. They have bad management because they are sick. Failing industries do not attract top employees.
[...] As for disappearing audiences, no amount of managing will solve that one. Classical music has only itself to blame. It has indulged the creation of a narcissistic avant-garde speaking in languages that repel the average committed listener in even our most sophisticated American cities.
[...] Fleeing audiences are one more symptom, the cause being a public art that has been abandoned by its avant-garde and uses up its given natural resources with profligacy. Audiences are not to blame. They are smarter than Elliott Carter and Milton Babbitt want to think they are.
Definitely worth a read and some reflection....
So Terry Teachout wrote a kind-of-controversial article that ran in the Wall Street Journal today, rounding up some of the recent terrible news in the American performing arts world and making a comment about those problems--and he almost, but not quite, says what those problems are really about. After detailing some sobering recent news, including the Philadelphia Orchestra (!) filing for bankruptcy last week, Teachout observes:
What's the problem? In the immortal (if apocryphal) words of Sam Goldwyn, "If nobody wants to see your picture, there's nothing you can do to stop them." Corollary: If nobody can afford a ticket to your show, there's nothing you can do to make them buy one. When money is tight and ticket prices keep climbing, playgoers and opera buffs will respond by staying home. Moreover, the high-culture business models of the past don't work anymore.
In that quote he almost clearly sees the fundamental problem that American performing arts organizations face, but then sort of willfully ignores it and talks about business models. He is right that ticket prices are generally way too high and that most of the business models of large performing arts organizations are no longer working and need to be fundamentally reconsidered, particularly with regard to negotiations between labor and management.
But the real truth is in that Goldwyn quote: more and more, people are simply not interested in the products offered by large performing arts organizations. They aren't buying tickets because they do not value what is on offer, and are choosing to spend their entertainment dollars elsewhere. (If ticket prices are way too expensive, how do successful professional sports franchises continue to sell so many high dollar season tickets? People will find a way to pay for experiences they value.)
This seems to be the real, potential core problem that no one wants to say out loud or discuss openly: the possibility that the kind of musical experience that symphony orchestras and opera companies currently offer appeals to too few Americans to sustain the institutions that present them. The gap between what classical musicians do and what American listeners seek may have simply grown too wide to bridge in any sustainable way with current practices.
The Berlin Philharmonic's truly outstanding Digital Concert Hall offers up a gem, free of charge: a command performance for Her Majesty Queen Beatrix by the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, conducted by Mariss Jansons with Janine Jansen, violin. Sooooo good. And FREE. Get it here.
(Program: Mendelssohn Violin Concerto and Brahms Symphony No. 4. Like spending time with old friends.)
i think one of the things that distinguishes music from the other arts is that music often requires other people the performance of music is a public occasion or a social occasion this brings it about that the performance of a piece of music can be a metaphor of society of how we want society to be though we are not now living in a society which we consider good we could make a piece of music in which we would be willing to live
from I-VI (Cage's Charles Elliot Norton lectures at Harvard in 1988-89)
Recent research out of Vanderbilt University, published in the journal Brain and Cognition:
Supporting what many of us who are not musically talented have often felt, new research reveals that trained musicians really do think differently than the rest of us. Vanderbilt University psychologists have found that professionally trained musicians more effectively use a creative technique called divergent thinking, and also use both the left and the right sides of their frontal cortex more heavily than the average person.
Some interesting conclusions, read about the research here.
Listening Room is as simple as it sounds: create a room, have your friends join you, and anyone can play music from their computer for all to hear. Plus, chat. Completely awesome.
Suddenly our hostess confronted us. “I’m so sorry, Dr. Einstein,” she said with an icy glare at me, “that you missed so much of the performance.”
Einstein and I came hastily to our feet. “I am sorry, too,” he said. “My young friend here and I, however, were engaged in the greatest activity of which man is capable.”
She looked puzzled. “Really?” she said. “And what is that?”
Einstein smiled and put his arm across my shoulders. And he uttered ten words that - for at least one person who is in his endless debt - are his epitaph:
“Opening up yet another fragment of the frontier of beauty.”
A great story from Jerome Weidman about how Albert Einstein taught him to hear Bach.
The perenniel topic of "what's WRONG with classical music??" surfaces again in a thoughtful blog post over at 3QuarksDaily. I agree and disagree with much of what Colin Eatock mentions in that piece (and am frustrated by some of the common misperceptions perpetuated in it), but it's excellent discussion fodder and it generated a fairly interesting conversation in this thread over on Metafilter. Food for thought.
Alex Ross hits another one out of the park (at least that's my opinion about 1/3 of the way through, and I don't see things falling off) with his new book Listen To This. What's really fantastic about the book, aside from all of the great specifics, is the general philosophical approach to musical art that Ross takes in his commentary, explanation, discovery, etc.--he simply loves music, all of it, and makes no a priori distinctions about what can or can't be good.
Excellent overview from the New Yorker here.
There is even a FREE online audio guide on his website.
Read this, soon.
Percussion music is revolution. Sound and rhythm have too long been submissive to the restrictions of nineteenth-century music. Today we are fighting for their emancipation. Tomorrow, with electronic music in our ears, we will hear freedom.
I've linked to a great John Waters interview Big Think previously, and as I perused the site after that post I discovered that it is an absolute El Dorado of interesting people and ideas. Here are some that I found especially engrossing.
You can scroll through the list of contributors here.
I have come to the conclusion that much can be learned about music by devoting oneself to the mushroom. For this purpose I have recently moved to the country. Much of my time is spent poring over "field companions" on fungi. These I obtain at half price in second-hand bookshops, which latter are in some rare cases next door to shops selling dog-eared sheets of music, such an occurrence being greeted by me as irrefutable evidence that I am on the right track.
John Waters speaks brilliantly about contemporary art and morality. NSFW language at the end.
"... most people have great contempt about contemporary art and I find that hilarious because I did a piece, it said "contemporary art hates you." And it does hate them because you can’t see it. You don’t know the magic trick; you haven’t learned the vocabulary, you haven’t learned the special way of seeing something that changes it. And that is like joining a biker gang; that is."
My wife and I had a conversation about this statement, and she felt that is was a bit unfair. She feels that while many people may feel that contemporary art is couched in a language they don't understand, most artists aren't looking to deliberately mock or confuse their audience. Rather, it is often self-imposed barriers to the perception of contemporary art that gets in the way.